Supplement – 2016

2016 17 formatted supplement PDF download

Table of Contents
Volume I …………………………… 1

Chapter 2. National Power………………………….. 1
Section II-G. The Commerce Clause and the Great Society. ………….. 1
The Civil Rights Act of 1964: Note………………….. 1

Section II-H. Dual Federalism and the Commerce Power: The Rehnquist Revolution … 2
United States v. Morrison ……………………. 2
U.S. v. Morrison: Questions……………….. 15
National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius…………. 16

Section IV. Other Delegated Sources of National Power: The Power to Spend, the War
Power, and the Treaty Power. …………………………… 38
A. The Taxing and Spending Power……………….. 38
Buckley v. Valeo……………………. 41
South Dakota v. Dole ………………………… 43
National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius…………. 46
The Spending Power: Questions…………………….. 62
King v. Burwell (2015): Note……………… 62

Chapter 3. Limits on Federal Power: The Federal Structure, the 10th Amendment, and State        Sovereign Immunity……………………… 65
Section II. National Power and State Power: State Sovereign Immunity……………. 65              Virginia Office for Protection and Advocacy v. Stewart (2011): Note……. 65
Sassamon v. Texas (2011): Note…………………….. 66

Section IV. A Unifying Theme? Dual Sovereignty. …………. 67

Chapter 4. Powers and Limits of the Federal Courts. …………… 72
Section III-B. Political and Similar Questions……………… 72
After United States v. Stanley (1987): Note…………………. 72

Section III-C-1. Citizen and Taxpayer Standing: The Personal Injury Requirement …. 72
Arizona Christian School Tuition Organization v. Winn: Background …… 72
Arizona Christian School Tuition Organization v. Winn…………… 74
Winn: Notes …………………………. 81

Section III-C-2. What Constitutes a Cognizable Injury? …………… 82
United States v. Windsor (2013) and Hollingsworth v. Perry (2013): Note………… 82
Susan B. Anthony List v. Driehaus (2014): Note ………….. 84
Bond v. United States (2011): Note ………………… 85
Clapper v. Amnesty International USA (2013): Note ……………….. 86

Chapter 5. The Role of the President……………………… 88
Section I. The Scope of Power……………….. 88
Zivotofsky v. Kerry (2015): Note ……………………. 88

Section III. Appointments and the Separation of Powers……………… 89
NLRB v. Noel Canning (2014): Note ………………. 89

Chapter 6. Limits on State Power: Preemption, the Dormant Commerce Clause, and the                Privileges and Immunities Clause………….. 91
Section I. Preemption………………… 91
Williamson v. Mazda (2011): Note …………………. 91
AT&T Mobility v. Concepcion (2011): Note………………… 93
Bruesewitz v. Wyeth LLC…………………… 96
Chamber of Commerce v. Whiting (2011): Note ………… 100
Arizona v. United States (2012): Note …………… 102
Mutual Pharmaceutical Co. v. Bartlett (2013): Note ……………… 104
Northwest, Inc. v. Ginsberg (2014): Note………………….. 105
Oneok, Inc. v. Learjet, Inc. (2015): Note …………………… 106

Section III-B. The Current Approach to the Privileges and Immunities Clause of Article IV, §2 ………………………. 107
McBurney v. Young (2013): Note …………………. 107

Chapter 7: The Incorporation of the Bill of Rights…………….. 109
Section VI-C. Early Interpretation of the 14th Amendment…………. 109
A Note on United States v. Cruikshank (1875)…………… 109

Chapter 8. Substantive Due Process. ……………………. 111
Section V. Liberty and Sexual Privacy………………. 111
Poe v. Ullman: Background……………… 112
Poe v. Ullman……………………… 112
Griswold v. Connecticut: Background and Questions…………….. 116
Griswold v. Connecticut…………………… 116
Griswold v. Connecticut: Notes……………………. 123
Eisenstadt v. Baird………………………….. 123
Roe v. Wade: Background and Questions………………….. 125
Roe v. Wade ……………………….. 126
The Evolution of Privacy Holdings from Griswold to Casey: The Expansion and                                Subsequent Contraction of Privacy as a Fundamental Right……………….. 132
Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey: Background and                                  Questions 132
Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey ……………… 133
Whole Woman’s Health v. Hellerstadt: Background………………. 143
Whole Woman’s Health v. Hellerstedt …………… 146
Review: The Language of “Fundamental Rights” versus “Liberty Interests;” The                            Application of “Strict scrutiny” versus “The Undue Burden Test.” ……… 160
Abortion Politics…………………. 160

Section VI. Liberty and the Family…………………… 161
Moore v. City of East Cleveland: Background and Questions……………… 161
Moore v. City of East Cleveland …………………… 161
Zablocki v. Redhail: Background and Questions………… 166
Zablocki v. Redhail …………………………. 166
Michael H. v. Gerald D. (1989): Note …………… 173

Section VII. Liberty and Sexual Autonomy: Restrictions on Private Sex Behavior  178

Section VII-A. Liberty and Sodomy: Bowers…………………. 179
Bowers v. Hardwick: Background and Questions…………………… 179
Bowers v. Hardwick ………………………… 181
Justice Powell’s Reconsideration ………………….. 183

Section VII-B. Liberty and Sodomy: Bowers Repudiated……………. 183
Kentucky v. Wasson (1992): Note…………………. 183
Lawrence v. Texas: Background …………………… 186
Lawrence v. Texas…………………………… 187

Section VIII. Constitutionality of Same-sex Marriage ……………….. 194

Section VIII-A. Homosexuality and Politics…………………. 195

Section VIII-B. The Constitutional Status of Same-sex Marriage before Obergefell v.                        Hodges ………………………. 195
A History of Same-sex Marriage ………………….. 195
United States v. Windsor (2013): Note (Supreme Court Recognition of State-                                  sanctioned Same-Sex Marriage) ……………………….. 198

Section VIII-C. A Fundamental Right to Marry…………….. 199
Obergefell v. Hodges: Background and Questions…………………. 199
Obergefell v. Hodges ………………………. 199
Akhil Amar’s Equal Protection Perspective on Same-sex Marriage …….. 215

Section IX. Liberty and the “Right” to Die……………………. 216
Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health (1990): Note ………. 216
Washington v. Glucksberg: Background and Questions………….. 219
Washington v. Glucksberg ……………….. 220

Section IX. The Takings Clause. ……………………… 225
Horne v. Department of Agriculture (2015): Note …………………. 225

Volume II………………………. 226
Chapter 9. Procedural Due Process………………………. 226
Section III-C. Is There a Postconviction Due Process Constitutional Right to Obtain Evidence Which Could Demonstrate Actual Innocence?………… 226
Skinner v. Switzer (2011): Note ……………………. 227
Connick v. Thompson (2011): Note ………………. 228
Kerry v. Din (2015): Note………………… 231

Chapter 10. Freedom of Speech and Press…………….. 232
Part II. Section VI-A-5. Cases on Vagueness and Overbreadth. ……………… 232
FCC v. Fox Television Stations, Inc. (2012): Note…………………. 232

Part II. Section VI-C. Content Discrimination……………….. 234
Reed v. Town of Gilbert, Arizona (2015): Note ………….. 234

Part II. Section VII-D. Infliction of Emotional Distress……………… 237
Snyder v. Phelps………………….. 237

Part II. Section XI-C. Limiting Access to Violent Video Games By Minors………… 245
Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association ………… 245

Part II. Section XI-D. Stolen Valor……………….. 252
United States v. Alvarez…………………… 252
After United States v. Alvarez: Note……………… 263

Part II. Section XV. The R.A.V. Exceptions for Unprotected Speech (Hate Speech and                        True Threats) ……………………… 263
Elonis v. United States (2015): Note……………… 264

Part II. Section XVIII. Commercial Speech ………………….. 265
Sorrell v. IMS Health, Inc. (2011): Note …………………… 265

Part II. Section II. Regulating Streets, Parks and Sidewalks……….. 268
McCullen v. Coakley (2014): Note ……………….. 268

Part III. Section VI. Speech in Limited Environments. ………………. 269
More on Limited Environments: Note…………… 269

Part III. Section VII. Government Speech …………………….. 272
Walker, Chairman, Texas Department of Motor Vehicles Board v. Texas Division, Sons of Confederate Veterans (2015): Note ………………. 272

Part IV. Section III. Independent Expenditures: Use of Union and For-Profit Corporate                    Treasury Funds to Support or Oppose Candidates …………. 274
Nevada Comm’n on Ethics v. Carrigan (2011): Note …………….. 274
American Tradition Partnership, Inc. v. Bullock (2012): Note ……………. 276
American Tradition Partnership: Background …………… 276

Part IV. Section IV. Restriction on the Speech of Judicial Candidates. ……. 277
Williams-Yulee v. Florida Bar (2015): Note………………. 277

Part IV. Section V. Equalizing Speech Without Restricting Speech. (Note that the Court                rejects this characterization.) ……………….. 279
Arizona Free Enterprise Club’s Freedom Club PAC v. Bennett………….. 279
McCutcheon v. Federal Election Commission (2014): Note ……………….. 299

Chapter 11. Freedom of Religion……………… 303
Section III-B-1. Government Sponsorship of Religious Speech ……………… 303
Legislative Prayers and Town of Greece v. Galloway (2014): Note……… 303

Section IV. Free Exercise of Religion ………………. 306
Holt, AKA Muhammad v. Hobbs, Director, Arkansas Department of Corrections                            (2015): Note……………………….. 306

Section IV-A. The Development of the Required Accommodation Doctrine……….. 307
The Free Exercise Rights of Closely Held Corporations and Burwell v. Hobby Lobby                      (2014): Note ……………………….. 307
Hosanna-Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church and School v. Equal Employment                            Opportunity Commission (2012): Note……………………… 310

Chapter 12. Equal Protection ……………….. 312
Section V. Equal Protection Analysis of Social and Economic Regulatory Legislation… 312
Armour v. City of Indianapolis (2012): Note……………… 312

Section IV-B. Race: The Modern Approach………………….. 312
Brown v. Board of Education and Stare Decisis: Note……………. 312

Section VI. The Movement Toward “Rational Basis with Bite.”…………….. 316
Homosexuals as Suspect Class? Equal Protection Analysis of Gay Rights Issues: Note                316

Section IX. “De jure” versus “De facto” Discrimination: Obvious and Indirect                                    Discrimination (Discriminatory intent versus disproportional impact.)……… 320
Felkner v. Jackson (2011): Note…………………… 320

Section X. Affirmative Action……………… 322
Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena (1995): Note ………………….. 322
Grutter v. Bollinger: Background …………………. 324
Grutter v. Bollinger…………………………. 325
Grutter: Questions for Consideration ……………. 334
Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1: Note… 334
Fisher v. University of Texas (Fisher II): Background……………. 336
Fisher v. University of Texas (Fisher II) …………………… 338
Fisher II Dissent, Justice Alito: Note ……………. 344
Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action (2014): Note ………… 345

Section XI-A. The Right to Vote ……………………… 345 3.
The Reapportionment Cases…………………….. 345
Voting Rights Act of 1965: Note ………………….. 346
Shelby County v. Holder………………….. 348

Section XI-B. The Right of Access to Justice………………… 348
Turner v. Rogers (2011): Note……………………… 348

Chapter 13. The Scope of the 13th and 14th Amendments. ……………. 351
Section I. Congressional Power to Enforce the 13th and 14th Amendments. ……….. 351
The Civil Rights Act of 1964: Note………………. 351